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Stone carving

Stone carving 
Stone materials are not only important timbering in traditional architecture, but also the focal manifestation of engraving art. There are three kinds of stone materials used in the Ben-Yuan Lin’s Family Mansion and Garden. The first one is yellowish, reddish granite, or “longshi” which came mostly from Southern Min area of China. Another kind is white granite called “baishi” from Quanzhou and the last one green granite, known as “qingdoushi.” When descendents of the Lin family extended the construction of their residence, they also adopted “Guanyinshang stone” and longshi found in Taiwan. Stone carving are mostly shown on basements, steps, column bases, stone flower chairs, and stone windows.  

 Basements at the feet of an entire architecture have practical functions and are carved into the shape of counter foot. They are in the patterns of cloud, curling tendril design, or hornless dragons. They are done mostly by surface carving.

 The steps are rendered in the pathway. They are also often made in the shape of counter foot, carved with curling tendril design or hornless dragons.  

 A template is the base stone under a column. It is usually referred to as “zhuzhu.”It is used to protect the foot of a column from corrosion due to moist. It can also distribute the weight carried on a larger area.

Stone windows 
 The window shutters on a stone window are often carved into barred bamboo joints. The number of window shutters is usually an odd number, such as three, five, or seven.  

Flower chairs 
 A flower chair is a stone flower stands for plant pots. As it looks as if it were the chair for flowers to sit, it is named flower chair, or flower base. Usually it is composed of two vertical stone pallets and one horizontal stone pallet, which forms into a ㄇ-shape. It is carved with curved fretwork and cloud patterns, which is delightful to see.The flower chair in Lai-ching Hall is shaped into high and low flower stands, which are finely carved with curved fretwork and cloud patterns.  

 The balustrades are composed of vertical rectangular prisms. The rectangular prisms of capitals are called baluster. The shapes of the capitals include pumpkin, cube, and tetrakaidecahedron. The lines are simple yet elegant.